Below is a collection of resources gathered by us, System Comforts. This is by no means an exhaustive list, and we encourage you to submit your own resources via our blog @system-comforts on Tumblr.

These resources are separated by types, and within each type they are separated into resources focusing on DID and resources focusing on broader ideas of plurality. Each also includes summary tags for ease of search using the ctrl + F function. Click on the corresponding button and it will take you to a list of those resources.

System Comforts does not hold the same views as every resource posted here, rather we are only trying to create a varied collection of resources relating to plurality in some form. At the same time, we hold discretion over what resources are published on this blog and hold the right to add or remove links if we feel it is in our best interest. We examine every resource the best we can before publishing them here, though there may be parts we miss. If you find any significant issues you may send us an ask or message in order to resolve it.Furthermore, we would like to remind those who use these resources that science and knowledge of plurality is constantly changing. We here at System Comforts will always keep an open mind. Although you may not hold the same views as someone else, respectful discussion is more productive than rude attacks.We hope these resources prove useful to the plural community and those interested in it. If you have any questions, comments, or a link is not working, send us an ask or message us.last updated 6/15/22

Below is a list of studies. Each includes its date of publication, a summary of what it discusses and concludes, and tagged search terms.

///////////DID/OSDD///////////https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4959824/ : Notes: 2016. Paper dispelling 6 common myths about DID such as the belief that DID is a fad, DID is primarily diagnosed in North America by DID experts who overdiagnose the disorder, DID is rare, DID is iatrogenic rather than a trauma based disorder, DID is the same as borderline personality disorder, and that DID treatment is harmful to patients. Tags: DID, myth, faking, iatrogenic///http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039279 : Notes: 2012. Study comparing 11 individuals with DID to 18 instructed to act like DID patients. Participants were asked to switch, and brain activity was analyzed. Study says, “The findings are at odds with the idea that differences among different types of dissociative identity states in DID can be explained by high fantasy proneness, motivated role-enactment, and suggestion. They indicate that DID does not have a sociocultural (e.g., iatrogenic) origin.,”. Tags: DID, faking, iatrogenic, roleplay///http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0098795 : Notes: 2014. Similar to the above study. Compares reactions of the brain of Apparently Normal Parts (ANPs), Emotional Parts (EPs), and actors. Concludes that “Compared to ANP, EP activated brain structures involved in self-referencing and sensorimotor actions more. Actors had different perfusion patterns compared to genuine ANP and EP. Comparisons of neural activity for individuals with DID and non-DID simulating controls suggest that the resting-state features of ANP and EP in DID are not due to imagination,”. Tags: DID, faking, iatrogenic, roleplay, ANP, EP, MRI///https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213158213000892 : Notes: 2013. Similar to the above studies, this study examines ANP, EP, and control participants’ and concludes that “Actors were unable to mimic the neural/behavioral reactions of DID patients,”. It also examines the neural differences in ANP, EP, and control participants’ reactions to various facial expressions, concluding that “Neural/behavioral differences between EP and ANP exist at a preconscious level,”. Tags: DID, faking, iatrogenic, roleplay, ANP, EP///https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20721761/ : 2010. Notes: Article about dissociative tendencies and hypnotic suggestibility. Study examines and compares 19 low dissociative highly suggestible (LDHS), and 11 high dissociative highly suggestible (HDHS) participants. Concludes that “These results provide further evidence for two highly suggestible subtypes: a dissociative subtype characterized by deficits in executive functioning and a predisposition to psychopathology, and a subtype that exhibits superior imagery and no observable deficits in functioning,”. Tags: dissociation, hypnosis, iatrogenic, faking, myth///https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/pdf/10.1176/ajp.154.6.832?code=ajp-site : Notes: 1997 PDF. Follow up self-report study with 54 DID patients after 2 years of treatment. Conclusion is that improvements were seen within the patients in a variety of aspects such as mood, depression, anxiety, and dissociative symptoms. Recovery treatments included medication, therapy, and integration. Concludes that this supports the theory that those with DID can improve their symptoms through these means. Tags: DID, treatment, therapy, self-report, comorbid, integration///https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7013252TheMultidimensionalInventoryofDissociationMIDAComprehensiveMeasureofPathologicalDissociation: Notes: 2006. Study that discusses the validity of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID), with some comparison to other measures of dissociation and the MID’s key uses. Also explains the various categories included in the MID, such as voices, memory problems, depersonalization and derealization, discontinuity of time, intrusive emotions and actions, time loss, and fugues. Tags: DID, MID, test, screening, dissociation, symptoms///https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25670646/ : Compares brain structural differences using MRI between those with PTSD and those with both PTSD and DID. Study leads to two main conclusions: “a trauma-related etiology for DID” and “neurobiological evidence for the side-by-side nosological classification of PTSD and DID in the DSM-5,”. Tags: DID, PTSD, trauma, DSM, MRI///https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0022167890303004 : Notes: 1990 limited access. An interesting abstract that discusses dissociation outside of a pathological context. Tags: dissociation, consciousness, health, plural///https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22082488/ : Notes: 2012. Study explores dissociation, trauma, and its connection to voice hearing. A key hypothesis is that “VH may be more appropriately understood as a dissociative rather than a psychotic phenomenon”. Concludes that “available evidence suggests that VH experiences, including those in the context of psychotic disorders, can be most appropriately understood as dissociated or disowned components of the self (or self-other relationships) that result from trauma, loss, or other interpersonal stressors,”. Tags: dissociation, voice hearing, psychotic, psychosis, trauma///https://academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/43/1/108/2503418 : Notes: A study that explains the similarity in symptoms between schizophrenic spectrum disorders (SSDs) and Dissociative Disorders (DDs). Overlaps include dissociation, history of trauma, and positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in DID patients. Implications discuss these similarities between diagnoses as well as how “it has been suggested that dissociation increases the vulnerability to psychotic experiences, whereas paranoid ideation and perceptual abnormalities increases the vulnerability to dissociation. In addition, dissociation might cause weakened cognitive inhibition, in turn leading to hallucinations and delusions,”. Tags: DID, dissociation, schizophrenia, psychotic, psychosis, trauma, symptoms, DSM, comorbid///https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/1854/Diss3410OCRrev.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y : Notes: 1989 Older study. Although this study is fairly outdated, it provides a picture of older DID and dissociative research. It focuses on several case studies of animal alters. Please be aware this content may be highly triggering, as it has severe discussions of abuse. Tags: DID, dissociation, complex trauma, sexual abuse, animal alters///https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/1750/Diss9310OCRrev.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y : Notes: 1995 Older study. Another older study that discusses the administering of a Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) in Japanese. Considers cultural background and shows historical presence and discussion of dissociation in countries outside the U.S. and Europe. Tags: DID, dissociation, test, screening, culture, history///https://drive.google.com/file/d/19HmBOv6K0OQpUPjfiejziLzdl21kOCw/view : Notes: 1988 Older study. Study that examines historical records of DID patients who experienced physical symptoms and differences between alters, even citing cases back into 1811 and into the 1950s, 60s, and 70s. Although outdated, it provides a historical record of physiological changes in those with DID. Tags: DID, health, history, symptoms/////////////Plural///////////http://pubs.sciepub.com/rpbs/5/2/1/index.html : Notes: 2017. Paper examining tulpamancy, a non-traumagenic form of multiplicity. Discusses what tulpamancy is and examines results of self reporting polls of tulpamancers. Study looked at the relationship between tulpas and improved mental health. The study concludes that “results reinforce the correlation between tulpa creation and perceived improvements in mental health,“. Tags: plural, tulpa, tulpamancy, mental health, mental illness///https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468408/ : Notes: 2017. A study that aims to explore the phenomenon of multiplicity through exploring the various communities and interviews with those who identify as multiple. 6 members of the multiple community were interviewed by a psychologist and asked about their experiences as multiple. Study concludes that “Multiplicity can be placed along a continuum between identity disturbance and dissociative identity disorder (DID), although most systems function relatively well in everyday life. Further research is needed to explore this phenomenon, especially in terms of the extent to which multiplicity can be regarded as a healthy way of coping,”. Tags: plural, multiple, multiplicity, mental health, interview///https://drive.google.com/file/d/1hcMLBTc41yu8PXLoW4MieSwlLxPCPT3/view : Notes: 2005. Study that examines how discourses surrounding DID and the necessity of final fusion can limit current theory and practice. Examines 5 texts and criticizes language and ideas of practice. Concludes, “So, is the requirement for oneness necessarily healthy and helping the client? The texts explored indicated that this may not always be so. In general integration was expected to result in further problems (eg. Putnam, 1989). The possibility that the treatment is problematic is not questioned within the texts. Instead the problems resulting from treatment are individualised to the client and at best are seen as a sacrifice that the client has to pay. This highlights issues of power, responsibility, control and agency which will be covered in a further paper,”. Tags: DID, plural, treatment, critique, final fusion///https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.2190/FTG3-Q9T0-7U26-5Q5X : Notes: 2003 limited access. A study that asks fiction writers about their memories of childhood imaginary companions. Study found that 92% of writers experienced the illusion of independent agency (where a fictional character is experienced as having independent thoughts), and that “as a group, the writers scored higher than population norms in empathy, dissociation, and memories for childhood imaginary companions,”. Tags: plural, imaginary friend, write, fictional characters, dissociation///https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6061115/ : Notes: 2018. A study that focuses on the impacts of trauma on autism. States that “Preliminary findings indicate that people with ASD may be at high risk for experiencing stressful and traumatic life events, the sequelae of which can negatively impact mental health through the development of comorbid psychopathology”. It also states, “it is possible that the nature of ASD may enhance vulnerability to trauma and its sequelae,” which is a commonly discussed idea in the plural community. Tags: complex trauma, autism, neurodivergence, comorbid///

Below is a list of websites with information ranging from diagnosis information to blogs with people's experiences with plurality. Includes a tagging system as well.

///////DID/OSDD///////http://traumadissociation.com/des : Notes: A link to a short questionnaire, known as the Dissociative Experiences Scale. It is a common screening tool for dissociative disorders. It covers a variety of dissociative symptoms and can be helpful in assessing how dissociative a person is. Tags: Dissociative Experiences Scale, test, screening, dissociation///http://traumadissociation.com/index.html: Notes: The trauma and dissociation website. A popular resource focusing on trauma and dissociation. Has many informative sections and articles about PTSD, dissociative disorders, and other helpful pages. Tags: trauma, dissociation, resource, info, PTSD, article///http://traumadissociation.com/osdd : Trauma and Dissociation description and DSM criteria of OSDD. Tags: OSDD, criteria, symptoms, resource, info, DSM, dissociation///https://did-research.org/ : Notes: A general website that gives information about dissociation and trauma, particularly as they relate to DID and OSDD. Three helpful sections are listed below. Tags: DID, OSDD, research, info, resource///http://did-research.org/comorbid/dd/osddudd/didosdd.html : Notes: detailed description comparing DID and OSDD, explaining symptoms and other aspects. Tags: DID, OSDD, research, info, resource, symptoms///http://did-research.org/did/alters/functions.html : Notes: Descriptions of most common alter functions in DID and OSDD systems. Tags: DID, OSDD, research, info, resource, alters, roles///https://did-research.org/controversy/iatrogenic.html : Notes: 2015. Explains the controversy of DID as an iatrogenic disorder and includes studies that dispel this idea. Tags: DID, OSDD, research, info, resource, iatrogenic, faking, myth///https://www.discussingdissociation.com/ : Notes: A website that focuses on DID and OSDD, trauma, and healing. Has many articles on a variety of topics such as system organization, types of alters, and treatment options. Tags: DID, OSDD, trauma, info, resource, therapy///https://www.discussingdissociation.com/2009/07/20-signs-of-unresolved-trauma/ : Notes: 20 Signs of unresolved trauma. Can be helpful to look as if questioning a traumagenic origin.///https://www.discussingdissociation.com/2018/02/qualities-youll-find-exceptional-trauma-therapist/ : Article about ideal characteristics in a DID trauma therapist, including believing in DID and their client, allowing for grounding, and a genuine willingness to work with and establish a relationship with their client. Tags: DID, dissociation, trauma, therapy, treatment, blog, experience///https://www.sidran.org/for-survivors-and-loved-ones/ : Notes: Sidran Institute is a group dedicated to education and advocacy surrounding trauma and stress. The link leads to a section with resources for survivors and covers topics such as what psychological trauma is, what PTSD and dissociative disorders are, and information about therapy options and treatment. The site also includes various fact sheets and links to many other trauma resources. Tags: DID, PTSD, dissociation, trauma, treatment, therapy, info, resource///https://www.nami.org/About-Mental-Illness/Mental-Health-Conditions/Dissociative-Disorders : Notes: National Alliance on Mental Illness website, particularly the section pertaining to dissociative disorders. Lists symptoms, diagnosis information, and treatment options in a brief way. Tags: dissociation, treatment, symptoms, info, resource///https://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/dissociative-identity-disorder/dissociative-identity-disorder-did-signs-and-symptoms : Notes: Healthy Place has blog posts about a variety of mental health conditions and struggles. This particular link includes the symptoms and signs of DID, including in children. Tags: DID, dissociation, symptoms, info, children///https://www.healthyplace.com/blogs/dissociativeliving/2016/08/what-is-other-specified-dissociative-disorder : Notes: Healthy Place site with a general comparison between OSDD and DID. Includes information about the DSM’s past categories and the difference between DID and OSDD. Tags: DID, OSDD, dissociation, DSM, symptoms, info, resource///https://smallcedarforest.org/non-binary-plural-language-and-concepts-for-osdd-and-median-experience/ : Notes: Personal experience blog of person with OSDD. This particular article discusses language usage among those with OSDD or who are median. Tags: OSDD, plural, language, blog, experience///http://trauma.blog.yorku.ca/2013/04/the-fragmented-child-disorganized-attachment-and-dissociation/ : Notes: Article explaining dissociation and how it relates to attachment theory. The article states, “It is believed by some clinicians that the attachments formed between the child and the caregiver could play a substantial role in the risk of developing dissociative symptoms,”. It goes on to explain disorganized attachment, which makes it difficult for the child to form a coherent sense of self. Tags: DID, dissociation, attachment theory, trauma, symptoms, children///https://www.7cups.com/forum/TraumaticExperiencesCommunity60/DissociationDID919/JournallingforthosewithDissociativeIdentityDisorder_79619/ : Notes: 2017. Forum post explaining how to start a system journal. Includes tips such as including name and date, as well as questions to consider when examining what system members have written. Tags: DID, therapy, treatment, communication, journaling, self help, resource, blog///https://www.nctsn.org/what-is-child-trauma/trauma-types#q6 : Notes: National child traumatic stress network. Lists various types of trauma with descriptions and impacts. These include anything from physical abuse and sexual abuse to medical trauma, bullying, disasters and terrorism, community violence, and intimate partner violence. Also includes various resources for each type. Tags: trauma, info, resource, self help///https://overcomingsexualabuse.com/2010/02/13/possible-indicators-of-sexual-abuse/ : Notes: Extensive list of possible indicators of sexual abuse. Covers many aspects of life such as sexuality, body issues, attachment issues, sleep issues, eating issues, and more. Please note this article may be triggering. Tags: trauma, sexual abuse, self help, info, resource///https://www.beautyafterbruises.org/blog/youdidnotshatter : Notes: Article that discusses the language common to DID communities as well at the theory of structural dissociation. Provides a positive message and can be helpful and hopeful to those with DID. The blog itself contains other articles that discuss complex trauma and provides resources and support. Tags: DID, dissociation, complex trauma, theory of structural dissociation, positivity, self help///https://mosaicscience.com/story/my-many-selves-multiple-personalities-dissociative-identity-disorder/ : Notes: 2017. Article about a woman with DID, which explains her experiences as well as general information about DID, including some words from experts and more philosophical ideas. Tags: DID, dissociation, complex trauma, experiences//////////Plural///////https://kinhost.org/Movement/Movement : Notes: Kinhost.org is a common site within the plural community that has many posts that discuss various topics within the plural community. They advocate for building community and removing social stigma around plurality. This link leads to posts that pertain to the plural movement. Tags: plural, DID, info, resource, experiences///https://morethanone.info/ : Notes: More than One is a simple website with information about plurality. It includes helpful terms, causes and myths, information for singlets, and articles if one is questioning if they are plural. Tags: plural, multiplicity, info, resources, self help///http://www.exunoplures.org/main/ : Notes: A website that includes articles written by systems that discuss various aspects of plurality, including experiences of plurality, relationships in systems, advice for singlets, and even philosophical pieces. Tags: Plural, multiplicity, dissociation, info, resource, experiences///https://www.vice.com/en/article/vdxgw9/when-multiple-personalities-are-not-a-disorder-400 : News article by Vice discussion the cases of plurals outside of a pathological/ DID context. Considers philosophical aspects as well. Tags: plural, DID, experiences, advocacy, news///https://web.archive.org/web/19990203092522/http://www.asarian.org/~vickis/continuum.html : Notes: 1999. Wayback machine showing the website the Wonderful World of the Midcontinuum. Discusses experiences that are not fully multiple but still plural, like median experiences. Shows historical discussions of plurality online. Tags: plural, median, history, info///https://web.archive.org/web/20021019114325/http://www.darkpersonalities.com/rants/entries/moablaharet2.htm : Notes: 2002. Wayback machine showing a positive experience from a plural person with an understanding singlet. Shows history of discussions of plurality and its presence on the internet and in real life 20 years ago. Tags: plural, history, experiences///http://somatosphere.net/2015/varieties-of-tulpa-experiences-sentient-imaginary-friends-embodied-joint-attention-and-hypnotic-sociality-in-a-wired-world.html/ : Notes: 2015. Extensive examination of the tulpa community. Tags: plural, tulpa, tulpamancy, mental health, mental illness, DSM, hallucinations///http://www.hearingvoicesusa.org/ : Notes: Although not specifically plural, the hearing voices movement website may be helpful to those who hear voices but are unsure if this indicates plurality, psychosis, or something else entirely. An interesting resource for those exploring. Tags: resources, info, psychosis, psychotic, hallucinations

This section includes Youtube videos that discuss DID, trauma and dissociation, and aspects of plurality. We are always looking to add more resources!

///////DID/OSDD///////https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MMIqtgbWfLU&list=PLxg84Z3vhZREgAGIoIP9fUVxMY31sghII&index=29 : Notes: 2021. A short film titled “Alter” which is about the experiences of those with DID, particularly when handling a new alter and when unsure about what to do. Tags: DID, dissociation, short film, art, experiences///https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qQTPDRB65jQ&list=PLxg84Z3vhZREgAGIoIP9fUVxMY31sghII&index=32 : A visual guide to how alters form in DID and OSDD. Discusses resilience and complex trauma, repeated and over a long period of time. The youtube channel hosts a few other informative videos about dissociation and treatment. Tags: DID, OSDD, dissociation, complex trauma, treatment, causes///https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FoI94Epkjrc&list=PLxg84Z3vhZRHbVb0g9oc4tOl-BgB4lY8W&index=12 : Lengthy video lecture on DID and trauma. Discusses BPD and Schizophrenia vs DID, Scholarship methodology, and the treatment and focus on childhood trauma. Tags: DID, dissociation, trauma, BPD, Schizophrenia, psychosis, psychotic, info///https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=95ovIJ3dsNk&list=PLxg84Z3vhZRHbVb0g9oc4tOl-BgB4lY8W&index=13 : Notes: TED talk about trauma and how it affects one’s health throughout one’s life. Tags: trauma, info, mental health///////Plural///////https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8Nc-qkt_l4&list=PLxg84Z3vhZRHbVb0g9oc4tOl-BgB4lY8W&index=16 : Video about the history of plurality from 1989 to today, with a brief discussion of plurality earlier. Explains internet discussions and history of term usage across time. The youtube channel hosts other informative talks pertaining to a variety of plural experiences. Tags: plural, DID, info

This is a list of books relating to DID, trauma and dissociation, and plurality as a whole. We are always looking to add to these resources!

///////DID/OSDD///////https://www.amazon.com/Body-Keeps-Score-Healing-Trauma/dp/0143127748 : Notes: 2015. Amazon link to the book The Body Keeps the Score by Bessel Van Der Kolk. A commonly cited book in trauma and dissociation communities about the impacts of complex trauma on the body and mind and how to go about conceptualizing and treating it. Tags: DID, complex trauma, dissociation, info, resources, treatment///https://www.amazon.com/When-Rabbit-Howls-Truddi-Chase/dp/0515103292 : Notes: 1990. Amazon link to the book When Rabbit Howls by Truddi Chase and The Troops. A first person account of the Troop’s childhood and experience discovering their multiplicity. Also gives a historical look into how DID was treated and viewed in the 90s by both those with the condition and by professionals. Please be aware that although enlightening, the book’s content is highly triggering and filled with all types of abuse. Tags: DID, complex trauma, sexual abuse, dissociation, experiences, treatment///https://www.amazon.com/First-Person-Plural-Life-Multiple/dp/0786863900 : Notes: 1999. Amazon link to the book First Person Plural by Cameron West, a psychologist and person with DID. The book details his experience discovering his alters and the struggles he faced. Is a quicker read than When Rabbit Howls, but is also highly triggering with discussions of abuse. It also gives a historical perspective of DID and its treatment. Tags: DID, dissociation, complex trauma, sexual abuse, experiences, treatment.

These are Tumblr blogs that post positivity about plurality. If you would like to submit your own blog to be added to this list or would like to remove your blog, please send us a message.

@wholesomesystemmoments : A place to send in positive moments you have had with your system. Has many relatable posts and avoids all kinds of discourse.///@headspaceconversations : A blog that posts asks from systems about funny conversations and moments. Lots of funny posts.///@positivelyplural : A blog very similar to our own. Welcoming of all system types, answers asks and posts positive system content.///@inclusiveplurality : A blog for memes, positivity, and information for all system types, including those not formed through trauma.///@non-trauma-headspace : Spreads positivity and info about systems not formed through trauma. Very useful for answering questions and gaining support for endogenic, quoigenic, and other systems.